Non-Motor Aspects

Dry Mouth

Lack of saliva is a common problem that may seem little more than a nuisance. But don’t ignore it. Persistent dry mouth can affect how your food tastes and may even affect the health of your teeth. Although the treatment depends on the cause, dry mouth is often a side effect of medication. For more information read our leaflet: NM1 Dry Mouth

Speech and Language Problems in Parkinson's Disease

Most people take language and the ability to speak for granted, but communication through speech and language is a complex process coordinated through the brain that requires precise timing, nerve, and muscle control. For more information read our leaflet: NM2.1 Speech and Language Problems in Parkinson's Disease

Problems with Swallowing in Parkinson's Disease

Swallowing can be a neglected problem for many patients with Parkinson’s Disease (PD) despite the fact that swallowing problems can have a tremendous impact upon a person’s quality of life at home and their social life. Most people with PD will experience some difficulty with swallowing (known as dysphagia) at some point. These problems are not always noticeable to the person with PD. For more information read our leaflet: NM2.2 Problems with Swallowing in Parkinson's Disease

Problems with Eating and Drinking in Parkinson's Disease

Problems with eating and drinking in Parkinson’s disease are caused either by difficulties in swallowing or in the practicalities of eating and drinking (e.g. difficulties in getting the food up to the mouth or balancing a cup to drink or tiredness at meal times). For more information read our leaflet: NM2.3 Problems with Eating and Drinking in Parkinson's Disease

Problems with Drooling in Parkinson's Disease

Drooling or dribbling is a common problem experienced by people with Parkinson’s Disease. The textbooks refer to this as sialorrhoea. For more information read our leaflet: NM2.4 Problems with Drooling in Parkinson's Disease

Blood Pressure in Parkinson's Disease

People with Parkinson’s disease can experience problems with low blood pressure (hypotension) as a result of the symptoms of Parkinson’s and as a side effect of some of the drugs used to treat the condition. This information sheet provides you with facts about the nature of low blood pressure in Parkinson’s and gives you some tips to help manage it. For more information read our leaflet: NM3 Blood Pressure in Parkinson's Disease

Muscle Cramps and Dystonia in Parkinson's Disease

People with Parkinson’s disease (PD) often fi nd that they are prone to a variety of aches and pains. For example, muscular rigidity and a reduction in, or absence of, movement (akinesia) can lead to cramps, which are often quite distressing and which may not be relieved by ordinary painkillers. Occasionally, people with PD may experience severe muscle spasms or dystonias that are different from ordinary muscle cramps and have different causes and treatments. This information sheet aims to describe the different types of muscle cramps and dystonias that may occur in PD and what treatments may be available for them. For more information read our leaflet: NM4 Muscle Cramps and Dystonia in Parkinson's Disease

Pain and Parkinson's Disease

Pain is an unpleasant and occasionally distressing experience of the senses, which may occur due to a variety of causes. Pain may occur in up to 50% of people with Parkinson’s disease. However, the symptoms of Parkinson’s that affect movement, such as stiffness, tremor, falls and dyskinesias, may sometimes be the most obvious features and people with Parkinson’s may not realise the impact of pain on their condition. Sometimes, however, pain may be the principal symptom of Parkinson’s. In many cases, pain can precede the other symptoms of Parkinson’s and diagnosis of Parkinson’s by several years. For more information read our leaflet: NM5 Pain and Parkinson's Disease

Bladder and Bowel Problems in Parkinson's Disease

Bladder and bowel problems are common to people of all ages in the general population. People with Parkinson’s disease are more likely to suffer from some of these problems, particularly constipation. The problems which can affect people with Parkinson’s are discussed in this leaflet. For more information read our leaflet: NM6 Bladder and Bowel Problems in Parkinson's Disease

Sleep Problems and Parkinson's Disease

Most people with Parkinson’s disease experience problems with sleeping at night. A recent survey suggested that up to 90 percent of people with the Parkinson’s experience such problems. Excessive daytime sleepiness and sudden onset of sleep can also be a problem in Parkinson’s. For more information read our leaflet: NM8 Sleep Problems and Parkinson's Disease

Fatigue and Parkinson's Disease

The feeling of fatigue has been described as an overwhelming sense of tiredness, a lack of energy and a feeling of exhaustion. This sense can apply to physical, intellectual or emotional feelings. Anybody can feel fatigued when they are working too hard, causing their muscles to be overactive, or when pressures at work or at home cause stress or overwork. For more information read our leaflet: NM9 Fatigue and Parkinson's Disease

Anxiety and Parkinson's Disease

Anxiety can be an entirely normal feeling and is often an appropriate response to a dangerous or threatening situation. What is often understood as ‘anxiety’ can range from worry and stress to the bodily symptoms associated with fear and panic (the ‘fight or flight’ response). The bodily symptoms of such anxiety may include sweating, pounding of the heart, shortness of breath, tightness in the chest and unpleasant feelings in the stomach. Psychological symptoms of anxiety include excessive worries, ruminating thoughts and a sense of tension. For more information read our leaflet: NM10 Anxiety and Parkinson's Disease

Hallucinations and Parkinson's Disease

When a person hallucinates, they may see, hear, feel, smell or taste something that, in reality, does not exist. While most people with Parkinson’s disease do not get hallucinations, some people may experience hallucinations and these are usually visual. While the hallucinations may comprise quite complex scenes, they typically involve the person seeing small animals, insects or other people in the room with them. These images do not usually speak or make sounds and they can either disappear quickly or last for some time. Occasionally, the hallucinations are auditory (where the person hears a voice or sound without seeing anything), or tactile (the person feels something touching them), but for people with Parkinson’s, these are less common than visual hallucinations. For more information read our leaflet: NM12 Hallucinations and Parkinson's Disease

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